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Comfort & Hope offers help and guidance for a selection of five different diagnostic groups:

  1. Psychological Trauma & Specific Phobia;

  2. Psychosomatic complaints;

  3. Stress;

  4. Personality challenges;

  5. Family discord.


Diagnostics are obtained via screenings and tests that consider the DSM IV and DSM V, which are the fourth and fifth editions of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. These manuals provide a standardized classification system for the diagnosis of mental health disorders for both children and adults.




Psychological Trauma as discribed in the DSM V, come down to the exposure to acutal or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence in one or more of the following ways:

  1. Directly experiencing the traumatic event(s);

  2. Witnessing, in person, the event(s) as it occurred to others;

  3. Learning that the traumatic event(s) occurred to a close family member or close friend. In cases of actual or threatened death of a family member or friend, the event(s) must have been violent or accidental.

  4. Experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversice details of the traumatic event(s) (e.g., first responders collecting human remains; police officers repeatedly exposed to details of child abuse).


Further description of trauma imply among other things:

  • recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive distressing memories ;

  • recurrent distressing dreams related to event(s);

  • flashbacks and other comparable disorders;

  • intense psychological distress at exposure to cues that symbolizes or resemble an aspect of of the traumatic event;

  • persistent avoidance of sitmuli associated with the traumatic event(s);

  • negative thoughts and mood associated with the traumatic event(s).


A specific phobia is the marked fear of anxiety about a specific object or situation (e.g., flying, heights, animals, receiving an injection, seeing blood).





Stress is the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it. Hans Selye (1979).


But... there are a lot of situations, where we do not consciously deal with stress, but suppress it. In the long run it will become worse and will even express itself in all kinds of physical complaints and mood swings. See above.



(Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms)

People with pscyhosomatic complaints experience one or more somatic (physical) symptoms, that can be predominant of pain, but can not be properly diagnosed by the (family) doctor or specialist.


The source for psychosomatic pain is mainly due to emotional stress.



(Unhealthy Personality Traits )

Personality refers to a distinctive set of traits, behavior styles, and patterns that make up our character or individuality. How we perceive the world, our attitudes, thoughts, and feelings are all part of our personality. People with healthy personalities are able to cope with normal stresses and have no trouble forming relationships with family, friends, and co-workers.


Those who struggle with a personality disorder have great difficulty dealing with other people. They tend to be inflexible, rigid, and unable to respond to the changes and demands of life. Although they feel that their behavior patterns are “normal” or “right,” people with personality disorders tend to have a narrow view of the world and find it difficult to participate in social activities.

(Couples & Family problems)

Every family has problems once in awhile. But sometimes family conflict becomes too much. Often, this is because of trouble understanding each other, changing expectations as you grow older or lack of trust among family members. It might also be because your parents see things differently from you since they are from a different generation.


By family discords we mean those issues that are difficult to adress without professional help. Examples:

  • fighting couples / parents;

  • separation / divorce;

  • blended families;

  • abused family member;

  • abusive family member.



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